NBC 2016 Sustainable Development and Disaster Mitigation Notes

Pointers :

The energy and material resources required for a building can be
categorised as embodied energy, recurring operation
energy, refurbishment energy, and end of life disposal.

changing sky lines of cities bear no resemblance to local climate and resource availability.

there are efforts for a changing approach towards nature from ‘humanization of nature’ to ‘naturization of human’ and more recently towards
sustainable development.

 Make the basic performance requirements and set standards, applicable/ selectively adaptable to the climatic zone and geological conditions in which the construction is proposed.

Make efforts to maximize the use of traditional wisdom in design, wherever applicable, as it represents the knowledge about the long-term behaviour of materials and technology and their strengths as well as weaknesses.

the requirement of bottom up approach which invariably considers microclimatic and cultural conditions around. 

NOTE — The ‘bottom up approach’ concentrates more on how little is consumed; pursue deep understanding of sustainability; uses low technology innovations, materials and practices; recognizes performance to be more important than intent; and necessitates the use of common knowledge and common sense in design decisions. On the contrast, the ‘top down approach’ concentrates more on how much energy is saved; accepts the understanding of sustainability, may not be developed indigenously, more readily; uses high technology innovations, materials and practices; is driven by green brand and accompanying recognitions based on intent; and necessitates expert inputs and simulations.

The design process itself can play a significant role in creating built environment respecting all principles of sustainable development. This has to take into account various climatic zones (like hot-dry, warm-humid, composite, temperate and cold climates) as well as sun path movements, location (prone to tsunami, hurricane, etc), annual wind directions and geological conditions in the design of building, its orientations, wall and roof materials combinations, space layout, fenestrations and landscape. A solar passive architecture that places minimum energy demand in maintaining thermal comfort should be explored foremost.

an improved day light factor will reduce the day lighting needs by means of supplementary lighting with added health benefits such as reduced eye strain (associated with constant elimination conditions). India with over 95 percent of the clear design sky available, the design has to fully utilize the associated benefits.

Disaster Risk Assessment and Mitigation

The approach to disaster mitigation and management
should be holistic and integrated with emphasis on
prevention, mitigation and preparedness rather than
being relief centric. 

The formulation of disaster preparedness plan for any location should comprise the following steps: 

a) Step 1 — Identify the geomorphology; river, coastal and cyclonic proximity; and climatic zone related disasters risks. 

b) Step 2 — Identify population, business related disasters and vulnerabilities.

 c) Step 3 — Carry out risk assessment through hazard analysis and vulnerability analysis including possible combining effects of multiple hazards. Also include the effect on micro-climate and environment biodiversity. Coastal zones which are falling in high cyclonic flood zone, tsunami, and seismic zones of high intensity and landslide sensitive areas should receive special attention. 

d) Step 4 — Identify the socio-economic, sociopolitical hazards and vulnerabilities attributed to man-made disasters. 

e) Step 5 — Prepare a disaster risk mitigation plan supported with sufficient budgetary provisions.

 f) Step 6 — The disaster resistant building construction and infrastructure development features shall form part of the submittal to the Authority for statutory approvals. 

g) Step 7 — Establish/nominate a responsible senior person/safety officer as controller for regulating, planning and monitoring disaster preparedness plan for whole project. Carry out all constructions, installations and operations in line with the disaster resistant features for each of the vulnerabilities. 

h) Step 8 — Prepare and have mock drills at regular intervals for creating awareness and response preparation amongst stakeholder involved.

 j) Step 9 — Prepare operation manual for postconstruction operation and up keep of disaster resistant features and equipment.

 The basic action plan should focus on capacity building amongst stakeholders involved, communication, coordination, role of information technology, role of every individual working at site and role of emergency response cell of building in conjunction with the mitigation plans of local/state level authorities. The possible after-effects on human and natural habitats and mitigation plan should form integral part of disaster preparedness plan for least damage to human life, built environment and related ecosystems. 

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